According to Wikipedia: Fake news is a type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation, be it via the traditional news media or via social media, with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically. It often employs eye-catching headlines or entirely fabricated news-stories in order to increase readership and online sharing.
Reports from Universities
Fake News and the Spread of Misinformation (From the Shorenstein Center with links to peer-reviewed articles)
Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning (From Stanford University)
Lies, Damn Lies and Viral Content (Columbia Journalism School)
Fact Checking Sites: Browser Plug-ins:
Identifying Fake News Sites:
False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical "News" Sources (List of fake news sites)